Inherent Beta Cell Dysfunction Contributes to Autoimmune Susceptibility.
“Inherent Beta Cell Dysfunction Contributes To Autoimmune Susceptibility.”. Biomolecules..
|Center||University of Colorado Denver|
|Author||Yong Kyung Kim, Lori Sussel, Howard W Davidson|
|Keywords||autoimmunity, beta cell, mitochondria, pancreatic islet, type 1 diabetes|
The pancreatic beta cell is a highly specialized cell type whose primary function is to secrete insulin in response to nutrients to maintain glucose homeostasis in the body. As such, the beta cell has developed unique metabolic characteristics to achieve functionality; in healthy beta cells, the majority of glucose-derived carbons are oxidized and enter the mitochondria in the form of pyruvate. The pyruvate is subsequently metabolized to induce mitochondrial ATP and trigger the downstream insulin secretion response. Thus, in beta cells, mitochondria play a pivotal role in regulating glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In type 2 diabetes (T2D), mitochondrial impairment has been shown to play an important role in beta cell dysfunction and loss. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), autoimmunity is the primary trigger of beta cell loss; however, there is accumulating evidence that intrinsic mitochondrial defects could contribute to beta cell susceptibility during proinflammatory conditions. Furthermore, there is speculation that dysfunctional mitochondrial responses could contribute to the formation of autoantigens. In this review, we provide an overview of mitochondrial function in the beta cells, and discuss potential mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to T1D pathogenesis.
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